Milestone's Literature

जुलाई 3, 2014


Filed under: Education,Inspiration,Philosophy — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 5:34 पूर्वाह्न

Prof. (Dr.) Sohan Raj Tater (b. 1947) is former Vice Chancellor, Singhania University, Pacheri Bari (Jhunjhunu), Rajasthan and former Adviser, Jain Vishva Bharati University, Ladnun (Raj.). He is Emeritus Professor in Trinity World University (U.K.), NAIU (U.S.A.),Jagannath University(Bangladesh), Jodhpur National, JJTU and Singhania University. He is registered Research Supervisor in Abroad and Indian Universities in subjects – Philosophy, Yoga and Education. 25 Scholars have already been awarded Ph.D. in his supervision. Earlier he served in Public Health Engineering Department, Government of Rajasthan, for 30 years and took voluntary retirement from the post of Superintending Engineer. He is Associate member, Patron, Fellow and Life member in various Academic/Social institutes in India and Abroad. He has traveled abroad- U.S.A.,U.K.,Japan, Germany, South Korea, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan countries. A well-known scholar Prof. (Dr.) Sohan Raj Tater has written and got published 75 books and 15 books are under publication in his subjects – Philosophy, Yoga and Education. Besides this his more than 70 Research papers published in National and International journals of repute. Also, he has participated in more than 60 seminars, conferences, workshops, symposias and Endowment Lectures in India and Abroad. He has been awarded with Indira Gandhi Rastriya Akta Award, Samaj Bhushan, Yuvak Ratna, Indo- Nepal Harmony, Bharat Excellence Award, Jain Gyan Vigyan Manishi, Samaj Ratna, Maharshi Patanjali International Award, Indo- Bhutan, Vidhya Bhushan, Naturopathy Ratna and Yoga Ratna National awards. Website:
You may download his full profile and details of research work from  here:
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Research Books by Prof Sohan Raj Tater

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नवम्बर 29, 2013

Report on Two-Days National Seminar on “Ambedkarite Quest on Egalitarian Revolution in India”

Filed under: Dr Ambedkar,Education,Inspiration,Philosophy — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 4:15 पूर्वाह्न

Two-Days National Seminar on “Ambedkarite Quest on Egalitarian Revolution in India” organized by Centre for Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Studies, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana held on 26th & 27th November, 2013. It’s a matter of pleasure the faculty and students of Departments of Philosophy, Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh presented their papers in this seminar.

Rajni Bala (Student of B.A.Final Year) presented her paper on the topic “Contribution of Dr. B.R.Ambedkar to Indian Society” and said, “. B.R. Ambedkar popularly known as Dr. Babasaheb Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, was a multifaceted personality, an intellectual, a revolutionary, a philosopher, a patriot, a scholar, a writer, and the constitution maker. He struggled against the untouchability and the caste system. He began to get a taste of the bitter reality of being born as untouchable. Every day he had to carry to the school, a piece of gunny bag to sit upon and teachers would not touch his notebooks, and if he felt thirsty in the school, he could quench his thirst only if someone agreed to pour water into his mouth. He has popularly known as the pioneer who initiated the liberation movement of roughly 65 million untouchables of India. He realized that the right of the untouchables could only be safeguard by making constitutional provision. He was a scholar as much as a “man of action”. He gave an inspiring self-confidence to the Dalits, untouchables and women. He was in the favour of education and equal rights for everyone. He has been regarded as a ray of hope, for downtrodden in India. His vision of democracy and equality was closely related to good society, rationality and the scientific outlook. He held that the emancipation of Dalit in India was possible only through the three-pronged approached of education, agitation and organization. Thus Ambedkarism is the great relevance to Indian society to achieve social justice, removal of untouchability, in establishing equality and true democracy.”
Ms. Manju Chauhan (Ex-student and presently a student of MA (Philosophy), Dept. of Philosophy, P.U.Chandigarh) presented her paper on the topic “Dr. Ambedkar’s Ideas on the Importance of Equality in a ‘Just’ Society” and explained her views “Dr. Bhim Rao Ramji Ambedkar himself has experience the life of an untouchable. So, it has become mission of life to establish a new social order based on justice, liberty and equality. He spent his whole life fighting against discrimination and popularly known as ‘Babasaheb’. He has written on various social and political matters. In this context, he offered a model of ‘just society’ or ‘an ideal society’. According to him, casteless and classless society is must for the success of democracy. So, he wanted to base his society on liberty, equality and fraternity. Dr. Ambedkar from his early childhood was influenced by Buddha, Mahatma Phule, Kabir, etc. All of them stressed on equality in one or the other way and can be seen in the works of B.R. Ambedkar. Through his idea of education, he tried to improve the position of downtrodden or untouchables. He suggested the downtrodden to acquire new skills and start new professions to get equal status in society. He formed political organizations to establish democracy and attacked on caste system and discrimination. Among all his works, it is impossible to find which one is not indicating equality (‘just society’). Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the champion of human rights and emancipation of the untouchables.”

Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal presented his paper with the title, “Dr. B.R.Ambedkar ‘s Critique of Democracy in India”and expressed his views, “Various philosophers, political scientists and writers have given numerous ideas on democracy. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was a relentless champion of human rights and staunch believer in democracy, he said: “Democracy is not a form of government, but a form of social organisation.” In “Prospects of Democracy in India” he analyzed Indian Democracy and said a democracy is more than a form of government. It is primarily a mode of associated living. The roots of democracy are to be searched in the social relationship, in the terms of associated life between the people who form a society. He believed that in democracy revolutionary changes in the economic and social life of the people are brought about without bloodshed. The conditions for that are (i) there should not be glaring inequalities in society, that is, privilege for one class, (ii) the existence of an opposition, (iii) equality in law and administration, (iv) observance of constitutional morality, (v) no tyranny of the majority, (vi) moral order of society, and (vii) public conscience. Addressing the Constituent Assembly, he suggested certain devices essential to maintain democracy: “(i) constitutional methods, (ii) not to lay liberties at the feet of a great man, (iii) make a political democracy a social democracy.”

Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal
29th November, 2013

अप्रैल 30, 2013


Filed under: Education,Inspiration,Philosophy — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 5:54 अपराह्न


The teacher plays a very important role in the life of a student. He plays the key role in the development of the student. He is the nation-builder the real sense. He can make his nation great and strong. He shapes his students in good and responsible citizens. He doesn’t work for the reward. It will be the biggest reward for him if he will be satisfy from his job. He should work with a missionary spirit. An honest teacher is the pride of the whole society. He is an asset to the nation. He is held in high esteem. He is the source of inspiration for the students. He should be caring and sympathetic towards his students. He should serve as the lighthouse for the students.
A good teacher is the master of his subject. His method of teaching should be very simple, clear and to the point. His lessons should sink well into the mind of the students. He can set an example of good and noble life for the students as well as others. Degrees and diplomas do not make a good teacher. His own honesty, thinking, qualities n behavior makes him a good teachers degrees and diplomas just help him to find a job of a teacher. The teacher should be a very balance personality. He should know how to behave, how to talk and most important how to TEACH? He should help to his students to become confident and also help them to come out themselves from their difficulties. A nation can become great through his efforts.

Puneet Sharma
B.A.IIIrd Year (5854)
PGGCG-11, Chandigarh

This essay published in the following issu:

जनवरी 28, 2013


Filed under: Inspiration — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 1:53 अपराह्न

Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda

Merina Islam

Desh Raj Sirswal 



Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128 (HARYANA)

Print ISBN: 978-81-922377-1-8

(First Edition, January, 2012)

First Online Edition: January , 2013

download the book

मई 23, 2012

Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda

Filed under: Inspiration — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 8:55 पूर्वाह्न
Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902) is considered as one of the most influential educationist and spiritual thinker of India. Vivekananda’s personality was notable for its comprehensiveness and deep sensitiveness to the evils prevalent in the socio-economic and moral structure of the country. He preached both monistic asceticism and social service. His intellectual vision was immensely clear and he could easily penetrate into the currents and cross-currents that were manifested in the history of India.
Thus to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda, Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) publishing this book and it is a tribute to this Universal Man and a National Ideal for Youth. It is the general intention of the Centre to produce informative as well as positive literature to inspire and motivate the students and the general reader. We extend our thanks to the members of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa for their valuable suggestions and positive assistance towards CPPIS works.
ISBN: 978-81-922377-1-8
First Edition, January 2012
· Dr Merina Islam, Assistant Professor, Cachar College, Silchar, Assam.
· Dr Desh Raj Sirswal, Programme Co-ordinator, CPPIS, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Balmiki Dharmashala, Ward No.06, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128 (Haryana) Emails:,

Price: Rs.70/- (Seventy Rs. Only)

सितम्बर 5, 2011

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and World Teacher’s Day Celebrations

Filed under: Inspiration — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 10:23 पूर्वाह्न

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and World Teacher’s Day Celebrations

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birth Anniversary September 5 is being celebrated as Teachers Day. September 5 is special day to pay respect to our teachers. Teachers Day is the only occasion when we remember the time spent with our teacher, what they taught and what we are today.

The day is also significant for all of us as we remember a great teacher, philosopher and statesman, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, whose birth anniversary falls on this day.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born on Sept 5, 1888 into a middle class family in Tamil Nadu. He was the first Vice President of India.

Dr. Radhakrishnan was regarded as great teacher. Country celebrates his birth anniversary to pay respect for the teachers.

About Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan:

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born in the year 1888 in a well-known religious state in Chennai, then called Madras. He was the second son of Veera Samayya, a tehsildar in a zamindari. It was a middle-class, respectable Hindu Brahmin family.

He graduated with a Master’s Degree in Arts from Madras University. In partial fulfillment for his M.A. degree, Radhakrishnan wrote a thesis on the ethics of the Vedanta titled “The Ethics of the Vedanta and Its Metaphysical Presuppositions”, which was a reply to the charge that the Vedanta system had no room for ethics.

The Origin of Teacher’s Day :

Since 1962, 5th of September has been celebrated as Teacher’s Day in India. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakhrishnan was a philosopher and a teacher par excellence. Some of his students and friends approached him and requested him to allow them to celebrate his birthday. In reply, Dr, Radhakrishnan said, “Instead of celebrating my birthday separately, it would be my proud privilege if September 5th is observed as Teacher’s day”. The request showed Dr.Radhakrishnan’s love for the teaching profession. From then onwards, his birthday is observed as Teacher’s Day in India.

He showed how western philosophers, despite all claims to objectivity, were biased by theological influences from their wider culture. In one of his major works he also showed that Indian philosophy, once translated into standard academic jargon, is worthy of being called philosophy by western standards. His main contribution to Indian thought, therefore, is that he placed it “on the map”, thereby earning Indian philosophy a respect that it had not had before.

Dr. Radhakrishnan was of the opinion that only the right kind of education could solve many ills of the society and the country. He wanted to bring in a change in the educational system by improving the quality of education and building up a strong relationship between the teacher and the taught. In his opinion, teachers should be the best minds of the country; they should not merely instruct but should gain the true affection of pupils, and the respect for teachers cannot be ordered but it should be earned.

After 1946, his philosophical career was cut short when his country needed him as ambassador to UNESCO and later to Moscow. He was later to become the first Vice-President and finally the President (1962-1967) of India. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1954. The University of Oxford instituted the Radhakrishnan Chevening Scholarships and the Radhakrishnan Memorial Award in his memory. He also received the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in 1961.

Even as the president Sarvepalli remained a humble man. It was an open house at the Rashtrapati Bhavan and people from all sections of society were welcome to meet him. In addition he accepted only Rs. 2,500 out of his salary of Rs. 10,000 and donated the remaining amount to the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund every month. He remained a teacher in many ways and even adopted the authoritative tone of a headmaster in many of his letters to his ministers. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan passed away on April 17, 1975.

Cited from: Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Teachers Day Celebrations

World Teachers’ Day

World Teachers’ Day 2011 focuses on gender equality. The slogan is “Teachers for gender equality”.
World Teachers’ Day, held annually on 5 October since 1994, commemorates the anniversary of the signing in 1966 of the UNESCO/ILO Recommendation Concerning the Status of Teachers. It is an occasion to celebrate the essential role of teachers in providing quality education at all levels.[showUid]=3778&cHash=fce1d188f7

मई 16, 2011


Filed under: Inspiration — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 9:18 पूर्वाह्न


Desh Raj Sirswal


eARTICLE SIZE: 489 KB; 38 pages; US$ 2


Ó Desh Raj Sirswal 2011

“Knowledge will forever govern ignorance; and a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives.” – James Madison


The 21st Century has been acknowledged as the ‘Knowledge Century’. Every nation now finds itself operating in an increasingly competitive and globalised environment where the information, infrastructure, research and innovation systems, education and lifelong learning, and regulatory frameworks are crucial variables. In the words of Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, “The time has come to create a second wave of institution building, and of excellence, in the fields of education, research and capability building so that we are better prepared for the 21st Century.” Since India’s independence, there has been a persistent demand on behalf of the country’s intellectuals, expressed in different professional, philosophical and non-philosophical fora, to re-examine both ancient and modern philosophical systems to evaluate them and derive from them new directives for today’s changing conditions and there is a definite impetus and a sense of need towards an independent Indian philosophical identity to reinforce research and philosophical studies in India at different levels.


Each step in the journey of human development adds new bench marks in it. I am working through Society for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS) Haryana since 2008. For me the meaning of Positive Philosophy is to achieve an intellectual detachment from all philosophical systems, and not only to solve specific philosophical problems, but also to become sensitively aware of what we do when have we philosophized. An Interdisciplinary Study is a field of study that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged. Originally the term interdisciplinary is applied within education and training pedagogies to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established disciplines or traditional fields of study.


I think that in order to reach at the goal of creating “knowledge society”, the majority of the people in India must be helped to overcome ‘information poverty.’ The deprived peoples be given access to relevant and timely information and knowledge to address the roles they should play in the development process and in our society we are also working to erase information poverty related to philosophy discipline in India. It is painful situation that in India, philosophy is not more than a religious thinking for academic and non academic persons and no clear difference between study and teaching. So we should try to change our mental set and go for its practical implications. This is a reflection of my thoughts which are not complete yet it is my intention to get your response. I will be happy to get your comments, suggestions and will try to improve this work accordingly.


Positive Philosophy for Contemporary Indian Society has three chapters to read i.e. (i) Meaning of Positive Philosophy which deals with the conception of Positive Philosophy and Methodology, (ii) Nature of Philosophy in General which discuss about general conception of philosophy , methods of study and writing philosophy, and (iii) Philosophy of Social Change which discuss the need of Indian Model of Philosophy of Social Change and in the end there is a concluding remarks.


While going through this work, reader should not expect to find any final answer to the problems raised. This is not what philosophy aims at. In our country, there is an urgent need of those peoples who can think positively about humanities and social sciences for the growth of society and can make nation more competent with intellectual development. I would like to thank all friends and members of SPPIS, Haryana for their support and inspirational words.




DESH RAJ SIRSWAL: Assistant Professor (Philosophy), Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh. He is also Programme Coordinator, Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Pehowa (Kurukshetra). Associate Member of The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy, Washington, D.C.


Link for the Post:

अप्रैल 13, 2011

Our Publication:Philosophy, Education and Indian Value System

Filed under: Inspiration — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 5:08 पूर्वाह्न

Philosophy, Education and Indian Value System

Desh Raj Sirswal


eARTICLE SIZE: 309 KB; 28 pages; US$ 2

Ó Desh Raj Sirswal 2011





Philosophy is a way of being in the world of questions, interacting with it, and responding to it. Human mind is an ongoing dialogue about the topics of philosophy such as good and evil, right and wrong, truth and falsity, appearance and reality. Education refers to an act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, physical ability of an individual. Values are whatever an individual desires, prefers and likes. In context of present education system moral, cultural and spiritual values should be preferred. New Education Policy of India should be built on the foundation of ancient spiritualistic, modern culture and technical sophistication. It should develop scientific temper and spirit of inquiry in the students also.


The present work entitled, “Philosophy, Education and Indian Value System” is an attempt to relate philosophy, education and values at the same ground, so that they can perform the conception of complete education. Here we have three chapters i.e. (i) Philosophy and Values in School Education of India, Sri Aurobindo’s Philosophy of Education and Spiritual Approach to Education: An Indian Experience, respectively. I would like to thank my students and colleagues of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa for their full time support and corporation in our educational programmes.


In our culturally diverse society, education system should foster universal and eternal values, oriented towards the unity and integration of our people. Such value-education should hold eliminate obscurantism, religious fanaticism, violence, superstitions and fatalism. For this purpose philosophy and values become the primary concern. Presently various dimensions of individual and social development, social transformation, value- acquisition etc., have been well identified in present time for education for a developing nation. We are of the opinion that Indian education should aim at producing men and women of knowledge, cultural values and trained skills to achieve excellence in their personal, professional and social life. An ideal system of education would provide an environment and framework that will facilitate an harmonious blending of presumptions. Teachers and education administrators have to play key role for the pursuit of truth and harmony. None of these pursuits can be meaningful or fruitful unless these are voluntary. The spirit of liberty is a necessary condition for the search for truth and for securing cooperation, mutual progress; goodness and feeling can only be achieved by a good education system.


The personal, professional, social and political environment of our lives is getting more complex and challenging. Present students will have to face certain moral situations in future in which they will have to take decisions regarding their lives instead of depending on others. It is also necessary and important that students should take moral decisions for themselves. Relevance of teaching philosophy and values to school children arises due to current scenario of our country. India has profound positive content based on our heritage, national goals, and universal perceptions. One may give the examples of thinkers like Sri Aurobindo, Mahatma Gandhi, Dr B.R. Ambedkar, J. Krishnamurti, Raman Mahrishi and other social thinkers and educationist for this noble purpose, as they are the principal contributors of our modern wisdom.


Philosophers and behavioural scientists can surely attempt to find practical ways in which people may be inspired to become altruistic and moral. Government, Universities, and other organizations like UGC, ICPR, NCERT should promote such types of researches. Some peoples may have disagreements on what we have said in previous chapters holding the view that till a total and radical social and Cultural Revolution drastically changes the actual socio-economic conditions. For this noble purpose more attention and importance should be paid to non-religious, socio-political thinking while dealing with the educational courses at all level of Indian education-system. Any conclusion from this dialogue will only tentative, leaving adequate scope for dialogue continuation. Solutions of problems raised in this process should be beneficial for our system and this aspect should be constantly examined in the process of continuing dialogue.


DESH RAJ SIRSWAL: Assistant Professor (Philosophy), Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh. He is also Programme Coordinator, Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Pehowa (Kurukshetra). Associate Member of The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy, Washington, D.C.


Citation Details:

Philosophy, Education and Indian Value System

By Desh Raj Sirswal

Unit Price :$ 2.00
No. Of Pages :28


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NW11 8BH  United Kingdom











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मार्च 21, 2011

Tribute to Bhagat Singh

Filed under: Inspiration — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 12:12 अपराह्न


Singh, Bhagat (1907-1931)

Bhagat Singh was born on 27 September 1907.

Indian revolutionary and a major figure in the Indian independence movement of the early Twentieth Century. Singh was active in revolutionary struggle from an early age and he was briefly affiliated with the Mohandas Ghandi’s “Non-Cooperation” movement, although Singh would break with Ghandi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance later in life.

Singh embraced atheism and Marxism-Leninism and integrated these key components into his philosophy of revolutionary struggle. Under his leadership, the Kirti Kissan Party was renamed the Hindustan Socialist Republican Organization. As Singh and his organization rose to new prominence in the Indian independence movement, they became the focus of public criticism from Ghandi himself, who disagreed with their belief that violence was a necessary and vital component of revolutionary struggle.

Singh’s secularism was perhaps his most important contribution to the socialist and independence struggles. During those turbulent times, British Imperialism used every tactic to create antagonism among the different religions of India, especially between Hindus and Muslims. The Sanghatan and Shuddi Movements among Hindus; and tableegh and many sectarian movements in Muslims bear witness to the effects of this tactic. Bhagat Singh removed his beard which was a violation of Sikh religion, because he did not want to create before the public the image of a ‘Sikh’ freedom fighter. Nor did he want to be held up as a hero by the followers of this religion. He wanted to teach the people that British Imperialism was their common enemy and they must be united against it to win freedom.

On April 8, 1924, Baghat Singh and his compatriot B. K. Dutt hurled two bombs on to the floor of the Central Delhi Hall in New Delhi. The bombs were tossed away from individuals so as not to harm anyone and, in fact, no one was harmed in the ensuing explosions. Following the explosions, Singh and Dutt showered the hall with copies of a leaflet that later was to be known as “The Red Pamphlet.” The pamphlet began with a passage which was to become legendary in the Indian revolutionary struggle:

“It takes a loud voice to make the deaf hear, with these immortal words uttered on a similar occasion by Vaillant, a French anarchist martyr, do we strongly justify this action of ours.”

Singh and Dutt concluded the pamphlet with the phrase “Long Live the Revolution!” This phrase (translated from “Inquilab Zindabad!” became one of the most enduring slogans of the Indian Independence Movement.

Singh and Dutt turned themselves in following the bombing incident. Following the trial, they were sentenced to “transportation for life” and while imprisoned, Singh and Dutt became outspoken critics of the Indian penal system, embarking on hunger strikes and engaging in agitation and propaganda from within the confines of the prison. Shortly after the commencement of his prison sentence, Singh was implicated in the 1928 death of a Deputy Police Superintendent. Singh acknowledged involvement in the death and he was executed by hanging on 23 March 1931.

Bhagat Singh is widely hailed as a martyr as a result of his execution at the hands of oppressors and, as such, he is often referred to as “Shaheed (Martyr) Bhagat Singh.”

Mike Bessler, 2006

Further Reading: Bhagat Singh Archive

Cited from:


मार्च 7, 2011


Filed under: Inspiration,Women's Day — Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa @ 9:27 पूर्वाह्न

International Women’s Day has been observed since in the early 1900’s, a time of great expansion and turbulence in the industrialized world that saw booming population growth and the rise of radical ideologies.

Great unrest and critical debate was occurring amongst women. Women’s oppression and inequality was spurring women to become more vocal and active in campaigning for change. Then in 1908, 15,000 women marched through New York City demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.

In accordance with a declaration by the Socialist Party of America, the first National Woman’s Day (NWD) was observed across the United States on 28 February. Women continued to celebrate NWD on the last Sunday of February until 1913.

n 1910 a second International Conference of Working Women was held in Copenhagen. A woman named a Clara Zetkin (Leader of the ‘Women’s Office’ for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) tabled the idea of an International Women’s Day. She proposed that every year in every country there should be a celebration on the same day – a Women’s Day – to press for their demands. The conference of over 100 women from 17 countries, representing unions, socialist parties, working women’s clubs, and including the first three women elected to the Finnish parliament, greeted Zetkin’s suggestion with unanimous approval and thus International Women’s Day was the result.

Following the decision agreed at Copenhagen in 1911, International Women’s Day (IWD) was honoured the first time in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland on 19 March. More than one million women and men attended IWD rallies campaigning for women’s rights to work, vote, be trained, to hold public office and end discrimination. However less than a week later on 25 March, the tragic ‘Triangle Fire’ in New York City took the lives of more than 140 working women, most of them Italian and Jewish immigrants. This disastrous event drew significant attention to working conditions and labour legislation in the United States that became a focus of subsequent International Women’s Day events. 1911 also saw women’s ‘Bread and Roses‘ campaign.

On the eve of World War I campaigning for peace, Russian women observed their first International Women’s Day on the last Sunday in February 1913. In 1913 following discussions, International Women’s Day was transferred to 8 March and this day has remained the global date for International Wommen’s Day ever since. In 1914 further women across Europe held rallies to campaign against the war and to express women’s solidarity.

On the last Sunday of February, Russian women began a strike for “bread and peace” in response to the death over 2 million Russian soldiers in war. Opposed by political leaders the women continued to strike until four days later the Czar was forced to abdicate and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. The date the women’s strike commenced was Sunday 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia. This day on the Gregorian calendar in use elsewhere was 8 March.

1918 – 1999
Since its birth in the socialist movement, International Women’s Day has grown to become a global day of recognition and celebration across developed and developing countries alike. For decades, IWD has grown from strength to strength annually. For many years the United Nations has held an annual IWD conference to coordinate international efforts for women’s rights and participation in social, political and economic processes. 1975 was designated as ‘International Women’s Year‘ by the United Nations. Women’s organisations and governments around the world have also observed IWD annually on 8 March by holding large-scale events that honour women’s advancement and while diligently reminding of the continued vigilance and action required to ensure that women’s equality is gained and maintained in all aspects of life.

2000 and beyond
IWD is now an official holiday in Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, China (for women only), Cuba, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Eritrea, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Madagascar (for women only), Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nepal (for women only), Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and Zambia. The tradition sees men honouring their mothers, wives, girlfriends, colleagues, etc with flowers and small gifts. In some countries IWD has the equivalent status of Mother’s Day where children give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers.

The new millennium has witnessed a significant change and attitudinal shift in both women’s and society’s thoughts about women’s equality and emancipation. Many from a younger generation feel that ‘all the battles have been won for women’ while many feminists from the 1970’s know only too well the longevity and ingrained complexity of patriarchy. With more women in the boardroom, greater equality in legislative rights, and an increased critical mass of women’s visibility as impressive role models in every aspect of life, one could think that women have gained true equality. The unfortunate fact is that women are still not paid equally to that of their male counterparts, women still are not present in equal numbers in business or politics, and globally women’s education, health and the violence against them is worse than that of men.

However, great improvements have been made. We do have female astronauts and prime ministers, school girls are welcomed into university, women can work and have a family, women have real choices. And so the tone and nature of IWD has, for the past few years, moved from being a reminder about the negatives to a celebration of the positives.

Annually on 8 March, thousands of events are held throughout the world to inspire women and celebrate achievements. A global web of rich and diverse local activity connects women from all around the world ranging from political rallies, business conferences, government activities and networking events through to local women’s craft markets, theatric performances, fashion parades and more.

Many global corporations have also started to more actively support IWD by running their own internal events and through supporting external ones. For example, on 8 March search engine and media giant Google some years even changes its logo on its global search pages. Year on year IWD is certainly increasing in status. The United States even designates the whole month of March as ‘Women’s History Month’.

So make a difference, think globally and act locally !! Make everyday International Women’s Day. Do your bit to ensure that the future for girls is bright, equal, safe and rewarding.

The website was created and is managed by Australian entrepreneur and women’s campaigner Glenda Stone as a global hub of IWD events and information.

Ms Stone says “A decade ago International Women’s Day was disappearing. Activity in Europe, where International Women’s Day actually began, was very low. Providing a global online platform helped sustain and accelerate momentum for this important day. Holding only a handful of events ten years ago, the United Kingdom has now become the global leader for International Women’s Day activity, followed sharply by Canada, United States and Australia. 2011 will see thousands of events globally for the first time.”

Cited from:, 07-03-2011

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